Professional Objective Salon Training
Body Wrapper’s Certificate Course
FL-IT12BW-2019 | POSTedu.org
Body wrapping is a procedure that involves the use of various products to be applied to the skin followed by the body being wrapped. This is for the purpose of detoxifying, to cleanse, to tone, and to purify the skin and body, effecting many layers of the skin. Some of the popular ingredients used in the products are seaweed, cassia, peppermint, and many combinations of these and other herbs. Materials used to wrap the body are usually plastic or cloth (ace bandage). It is imperative that a thorough consultation is done to ensure that there are no contraindications present. A contraindication is a condition that the client has or a treatment that the client is undergoing that may have a negative side effect with the treatment you will administer. Therefore, the rest of this course will help you understand when you should go forward with the treatment or refer your client to a physician. After this course you will understand HIV/AIDS awareness, sanitation and disinfection, chemical makeup of the skin to include diseases and disorders of the skin, salon concepts, and knowledge of Florida law pertaining to body wrapping.
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) can lead to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), if not treated. Unlike some other viruses the human body is unable to rid itself of HIV completely even with treatment. So once, an individual acquires HIV, they then live with the virus for the remainder of their life. The HIV virus spread through certain bodily fluids that attack the body’s immune system, specifically the CD4 cells often called T-cells. Over time HIV can destroy so many of these cells that it makes it hard or impossible for the body to fight off infections and disease. Left untreated HIV reduces the number of T-cells in the body. This damage to the immune system makes it more difficult for the body to fight off infection and other diseases through time.
Origins of HIV
Scientists have identified a type of chimpanzee in Central America as a source of HIV infection in humans. Scientist believe that the chimpanzee version of the immunodeficiency virus, called simian immunodeficiency virus or SIV, most likely was transmitted to humans and mutated into HIV when humans hunted these chimpanzees for meat and encountered their blood. Studies show that HIV may have transmitted from apes to humans as far back as the late 1800’s. Over decades the virus slowly spread across Africa and later into other parts of the world. The virus has existed in the United States since at least the mid to late 1970’s.
When individuals who are infected with HIV reject or fail to receive treatment, they will typically progress through these three stages of the disease. Pharmaceutical prescriptions help HIV at all stages if taken right away, every day. Treatment can slow or prevent progression from one stage to the following stages in individuals and help with transmitting HIV to someone else.
Stage One: Acute HIV Infection
After conception of HIV, within 2-4 weeks an individual will feel flu like symptoms which may last for a few weeks. This is the body’s natural response in fighting infection. When individuals have acute HIV infection, they have larger amounts of virus in their blood and are very contagious. Individuals with acute HIV infection are often unaware that they are infected because they may not have symptoms right away or at all. To know whether one has acute infection, either a fourth-generation antibody/antigen test or a nucleic acid (NAT) test is necessary.
Stage Two: Clinical Latency (HIV Inactivity or dormancy)
This period is sometimes called asymptomatic HIV infection or chronic HIV infection. During this phase HIV is still active but reproduces at very low levels. Individuals may not have symptoms or feel sick
during this phase. For individuals who are not treating themselves with prescriptions the proper way, every day, could stay in this stage for decades. During this phase it is important that individuals know that they can still transmit HIV, although individuals who are treating themselves and stay virally suppressed (having low levels of virus in one’s blood) are much less likely to transmit HIV than those who are not virally suppressed. At the end of this phase one’s viral load starts to increase and the CD4 cell count starts to decrease. As this happens, symptoms will arise as the virus levels increase in the body, and the individual transfers into final stages of HIV.
Stage Three: Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS)
The most severe stage of the HIV infection. Individuals with AIDS have severely damaged immune systems that they get an increasing number of severe illnesses labeled opportunistic illnesses. Individuals will live roughly three years on average without receiving treatment. Diagnosis of HIV will occur when CD4 cells drop below 200 cells per millimeter, or if they develop certain opportunistic illnesses. Individuals with AIDS can have a high viral load and be very infectious.
Testing for HIV
The only way to know for sure whether you or anyone has HIV is to receive testing. Knowing your status is important because it helps you make healthy decisions to help with receiving or transmitting HIV. If you have symptoms that include fever, chills, rash, night sweats, muscle aches, sore throat, fatigue, swollen lymph nodes, or mouth ulcers it does not mean you have HIV. Each of these symptoms can be caused by other illnesses. However, if you have these symptoms after a potential exposure to HIV, see a healthcare provider and discuss your risk. After receiving testing for HIV, it is important that you receive your results and discuss with your healthcare provider treatment options if you are HIV positive and learn ways to prevent getting HIV if you are HIV negative.
To find a place near you that offers confidential HIV testing, visit,
- Text your zip code to KNOW IT (566948)
- Call 1-800-CDC-INFO (232-4636), you can also use a home testing kit, available for purchase in most pharmacies or online.
There is not an effective cure currently existing for HIV but with proper medical care HIV can be controlled. Treatment for HIV is antiretroviral therapy or ART. If taken properly ART can dramatically prolong the lives of many people infected with HIV, keep them healthy, and greatly lower their chances of infecting others. Before the introduction of ART in the mid 1990’s, individuals with HIV could progress into AIDS within a few years. Today, someone that is diagnosed with HIV and given treatment before the disease is far advanced can live just as long as someone who does not have HIV.
Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PREP) is when individuals with a very high risk for HIV take HIV medicine daily to lower their chance of getting infected. PREP can stop HIV from taking hold and spreading throughout your body. PREP is highly effective for preventing HIV if used as prescribed, but it is much less effective when not taken consistently. Daily PREP reduces the risk of getting HIV from sex by more than 90%. Among people who inject drugs, it reduces the risk by more than 70%. Your risk of getting HIV from sex can be even lower if you combine PREP with condoms and other prevention methods.
Post Exposure Options
Post exposure prophylaxis (PEP) is taking antiretroviral medicines (ART) after being potentially exposed to HIV to prevent becoming infected. PEP should be started within 72 hours after a recent possible exposure to HIV. If you think that you have recently been exposed to HIV during sex or through sharing needles, or if you have been sexually assaulted, talk to your healthcare provider or an emergency room doctor about PEP immediately.
Transmission of HIV
Myths persist about how HIV is transmitted. You can get or transmit HIV only through specific activities. Most commonly, people get or transmit HIV through sexual behaviors and needle or syringe use. Only certain body fluids such as blood, semen, pre-seminal fluid, rectal and vagina fluids, and breast milk of an infected person can transmit HIV. These fluids must encounter a mucous membrane or damaged tissue or be directly injected into the bloodstream (needle or syringe) for transmission to occur. Mucous membranes are found inside the rectum, vagina, penis and mouth. In the United States HIV is spread mainly by having sex with someone who has HIV without using a condom or taking medicines to prevent or treat HIV. For the HIV negative partner receptive anal sex(bottoming) is the highest risk sexual behavior, but you can also get HIV from insertive anal sex (topping). Either partner can get HIV through vaginal sex though it is less of a risk than anal sex. Sharing needles and syringes with someone who has HIV can live in a used needle up to 42 days, depending on the temperature and other factors. Even though it is less common HIV can spread from mother to child during pregnancy, birth, or breast feeding. Although the risk can be high if the mother is living with HIV and not taking medicine, recommendations to test all pregnant women for HIV and start HIV treatments immediately have lowered the number of babies who are born with HIV. You can be infected by being stuck by an HIV contaminated needle or sharp object. This is a risk mainly for health care workers. In extremely rare cases, HIV has been transmitted by….
- Oral Sex- Putting the mouth on the penis, vagina, or anus. In general, there is little to no risk of getting HIV from oral sex. But transmission of HIV, though extremely rare, is theoretically possible if an HIV positive man ejaculates in his partners mouth during oral sex.
- Receiving blood transfusions, blood products or organ/tissue transplants that are contaminated with HIV. This was more common in the early years of HIV, but now is extremely small because of rigorous testing of the US blood supply and donated organs and tissue.
- Eating food that has been pre-chewed by an HIV infected person. The contamination occurs when the infected blood from a caregiver’s mouth mixes with food while chewing. The only known cases are among infants.
- Being bitten by a person with HIV. Each of the small documented cases had involved severe trauma with extensive tissue damage and the presence of blood. There is no risk of transmission if the skin is not broken.
- Contact between broken skin, wounds, or mucous membranes and HIV infected blood or blood-contaminated body fluids.
- Deep open mouth kissing if both partners have sores or bleeding gums and have blood from the HIV positive partner gets into the bloodstream of the HIV negative partner. HIV is not spread through saliva.
If you have HIV it is possible to get another form of HIV. This is called superinfection. HIV superinfection is when a person with HIV gets infected with another strain of the virus. The new strain of HIV can replace the original strain. The effects of superinfection differ from person to person. Superinfection may cause some people to get sicker faster because they become infected with strain of the virus that is resistant to the medicine (ART) that they are taking to treat their original infection. Research suggest that a hard to treat superinfection is rare. Taking medicine to treat HIV may reduce someone’s chance of getting a superinfection.
HIV does not survive long outside the human body and it cannot reproduce outside a human host. It is not spread by…
- Mosquitoes, ticks, or other insects.
- Saliva, tears, or sweat that is not mixed with the blood of an HIV positive person.
- Hugging, shaking hands, sharing toilets, sharing dishes, or closed mouth or “social” kissing with someone who is HIV positive.
- Other sexual activities that do not involve the exchange of body fluids (for example touching)
Having another sexually transmitted disease (STD) can increase the risk of getting or transmitting HIV to others. Some of the most common STDs include gonorrhea, chlamydia, syphilis, trichomoniasis, human papillomavirus (HPV), genital herpes, and hepatitis. If you are sexually active, you and your partner should get tested for STDs (including HIV, if you are HIV negative) regularly, even if you do not have symptoms. If you are HIV negative, but you have a STD you are three times as likely to get HIV if you have unprotected sex with someone who has HIV. This appears to happen because there is an increased concentration of HIV in the semen and genital fluids of HIV positive people who are infected with another STD. There are two ways having STDs can increase the likelihood of getting HIV. If the STD causes irritation of the skin (for example, from syphilis, herpes or HPV) breaks or sores may make it easier for HIV to enter the body during sexual contact. Even STDs that causes no breaks or open sores (for example, chlamydia, gonorrhea and trichomoniasis) can increase your risk by causing inflammation that increase the number of cells that can serve as targets for HIV.
Prevention of HIV
Today, more tools than ever are available to prevent HIV. You can use strategies such as abstinence, limiting your number of sexual partners, never share needles and using condoms the proper way every time you have sex. You may also be able to take advantage of newer HIV prevention medicine such as PREP and PEP. Abstinence is the only 100% effective way to prevent HIV, other STDs and pregnancies. Using condoms properly each time you have sex will also lower your risk. The correct way to use male condoms is to use a new condom each time you have sex, read the package and check expiration dates, make sure there are no tears or defects, store condoms in a cool dry place, use latex or polyurethane condoms, and use water-based or silicone-based lubricant to prevent breakage. There are two types of condoms, male and female. A male condom is a thin layer of latex, polyurethane, polyisoprene, or natural membrane worn over the penis during sex. Latex condoms provide the best protection against HIV. Polyurethane (plastic) or polyisoprene (synthetic rubber) condoms are good options for people with latex allergies, but plastic condoms break more often than latex ones. Natural membrane (such as lamb skin) have small holes in them so they do not block HIV or other STDs. Use water-based or silicone lubricants to lower the chances that a condom will break or slip during sex. Do not use oil-based lubricants (for example, vaseline, shortening, mineral oil, massage oils, body lotions, and cooking oils) with latex condoms because they weaken the condom and cause it to break. Do not use lubricants containing nonoxynol-9, it irritates the lining of the vagina and anus and increases the risk of getting HIV.
A female condom is a thin pouch made of synthetic latex product called nitrile. It is designed to be worn by a woman in her vagina during sex. When worn in the vagina, female condoms are comparable to male condoms at preventing HIV, STDs and pregnancy. Some people use female condoms for anal sex. Currently there is no certainty that female condoms prevent HIV and STD’s when used by men and women for anal sex. But there is certainty that HIV cannot travel through the nitrile barrier. It is safe to use any lubricant with nitrile female condoms.
Living with HIV
Today an estimated 1.1 million people are infected with HIV in the United States. Thanks to better treatments, people with HIV are now living longer, and with a better quality of life, than ever before. If you are living with HIV, it is important to make choices that keep you healthy and protect others. You should start medical treatment as soon as you are diagnosed with HIV. Taking medicine to treat HIV is recommended for all people with HIV. Taking medicine to treat HIV slows the progression of HIV and helps protect your immune system. The medicine can keep you healthy for many years and greatly reduce your chances of transmitting HIV to sex partners. Receiving a diagnosis of HIV can be a life changing event. People can feel many emotions like sadness, hopelessness, and even anger. Allied health care providers and social service providers, often available at your health care providers office, will have tools to help you work through the early stages of your diagnosis and begin to manage your HIV. Talking to others who have HIV may be helpful. Learn about how others with HIV have handled their diagnosis. Find a local support group.
HIV and AIDS remain a persistent problem for the United States and countries around the world. While great progress has been made in preventing and treating HIV, there is still much to be done. Here is a broad overview of the effects of HIV and AIDS in the United States and globally.
- In 2014 there were an estimated 37,600 new HIV infections down from 45,700 in 2008.
- An estimated 1.1 million in the United States were living with HIV at the end of 2015, 15% of these people did not know they were infected.
- If we look at infection by transmission category, we see that gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men are at most risk. In 2016, gay and bisexual men accounted for 67% of all new HIV infections. In the same year, individuals infected by heterosexual sex made up 24% of all new infections.
- If we look at HIV diagnosis by race and ethnicity, we see that African Americans are most affected by HIV. In 2016, African Americans made up only 12% of the US population but had 44% of all new HIV diagnoses. Additionally, Hispanic/Latinos are also strongly affected, making up 18% of the US population but had 25% of all new HIV diagnosis. Whites were 26% of all new diagnosis followed by Asians 2%, multiple races 2%, American Indian/Native Alaskans 1%, and Native Hawaiians/Other pacific islanders less than 1%.
- In the United States, 6,721 people died from HIV and AIDS in 2014. HIV remains a significant cause of death for certain populations. In 2014 it was the eighth leading cause of death for the ages of 25-34 and 9th for the ages of 35-44.
- HIV is largely an urban disease, with most cases occurring in metropolitan areas of 500,000 or more people. The south has the highest number living with HIV, but if population size is considered the northeast has the highest rate of people living with HIV.
- HIV disease continues to be a serious health issue for parts of the world. Worldwide there were roughly 1.8 new cases of HIV in 2016.
- About 36.7 million people were living with HIV around the world in 2016, and 19.5 million of them were receiving medicines to treat HIV. An estimated 1 million people died from AIDS related illness in 2016. Sub-Saharan Africa which bears the heaviest burden of HIV/AIDS worldwide, accounts for roughly 64% of all new HIV infections. Other regions significantly infected by HIV/AIDS include Asia and the pacific, Latin American and the Caribbean, and Eastern Europe and Central Asia.
As a hair braider your risk of infection through occupational exposure is low. Universal precautions should be used when a client or you have been cut and blood is exposed. HIV positive providers and customers are not required to disclose personal HIV status in the workplace, to co-workers or colleagues, or to service providers. In fact, they are only required to inform healthcare providers (doctors, clinical workers, dentists, etc.) and sex or needle-sharing partners under penalty of law. Therefore, some infected people may keep this information private when securing braiding services. Therefore, it is important that all services should be provided using standard precautions thus, a disclosure from clients is not necessary to maintain safety and prevention.
Connecting Between HIV and Other Diseases
People that are HIV positive are more likely to get other infections and diseases as well. Tuberculosis (TB) is one these diseases. TB is an infectious disease that is spread through the air. TB usually infects the lungs but can affect other areas of the body such as the brain or the spine. Symptoms include weakness, nausea, weight loss, fevers, night sweats, long term cough, chest pain, or coughing up blood. Hepatitis is also a threat to the HIV patient, especially Hepatitis C (HCV). About 1/4 of HIV infected persons in the United States are also infected with HCV. HCV is one of the most important causes of chronic liver disease in the United States and the HCV infection progresses more rapidly to liver damage in HIV infected persons. HCV infection may also impact the course and management of HIV infection. Hepatitis is an inflammation of the liver. There is Hepatitis A, B, and C. Although Hepatitis A, B, and C have similar symptoms the virus themselves can be quite different, the hepatitis A (viral hepatitis) can either enter a person’s body when they eat or drink something that has been contaminated by the blood or stool of someone that has the virus. Symptoms usually appear within 2-3 weeks, but it is not chronic. Hepatitis B (HBV) and Hepatitis C (HCV) can be transmitted through blood, wound exudates, semen or vaginal fluids of an infected person. HBV and HCV are chronic however there is a vaccine for HBV and treatments for HCV.
Definition of communicable disease: an infectious disease transmissible (as from person to person) by direct contact with an affected individual or the individual’s discharges or by indirect means (as by a vector) — compare contagious disease.
More than 200 infectious diseases are listed in APHA’s Control of Communicable Diseases Manual.
- Hepatitis A
- Hepatitis B
- Hepatitis C
- Molluscum Contagiosum
- Sexually Transmitted Disease
- West Nile Virus
Prevention of Communicable Diseases
There are many ways to prevent the spread of disease. Vaccinations have helped eliminate or greatly reduced disease threats. Kids, teens and adults should all be protected and stay up to date with their recommended immunizations. Proper hand washing, especially before and after handling food and using the toilet, helps keep germs at bay. Other important ways to slow or stop disease transmission are by ensuring the food we eat and water we drink is safe, avoiding people who are sick and practicing safe sex.
Sanitation & Disinfection
Promoting and protecting good health in the community is called public hygiene or sanitation. Everyone who provides services to the public has a responsibility to help protect the health of the community Professionals must keep the salon clean and sanitary by following certain procedures to destroy harmful germs that can contaminate
working implements and equipment, to keep from spreading disease.
Scientists talk about two kinds of matter. One kind is inorganic matter. It has never been alive. The other kind is organic matter, which includes all things that are living or have been alive in the past. A living tree is organic matter, but so is a dead tree. Unlike inorganic matter, organic matter can be food for other living things after it dies. (For instance, when leaves die and fall from a tree, they provide food for the grass around the tree and for the tree itself.)
Organic matter comes in many shapes and sizes. The basic units of organic matter are called cells. Any independent group of cells is called an organism. We see many organisms around us every day. Some of them are rather simple, while others are very complicated and are described by scientific formulas. There is another kind of organism that exists as well, these are called microorganisms. Humans can see microorganisms only by using a microscope. Some of them are made up of only a few cells or sometimes just a single cell.
Microorganisms that the beauty professionals must know about are bacteria. The scientific study of bacteria is called bacteriology. Bacteria are one-celled microorganisms, sometimes called microbes or germs. Bacteria is everywhere in the air, on the ground, and even inside our bodies. After scientists discovered that some bacteria cause disease (pathogens or pathogenic), governments began to create and enforce laws to improve sanitation and thus protect the health of the community. Therefore, knowledge of bacteria sanitation is so important for the beauty professional.
There are two basic kinds of bacteria: Pathogenic and Non-Pathogenic. Pathogenic bacteria can cause disease. They are commonly called germs. Non-pathogenic bacteria do not cause disease. Most of them are very helpful, one particular type of non-pathogenic bacteria are saprophytes, they cause dead organic matter to decay and thus helps enrich the soil. The bacteria in yeast cause bread to rise, and another bacterium creates the alcohol in wine.
Pathogenic bacteria are divided into three types: cocci, spirilla and bacilli. Each has a different shape, which can be seen through a microscope. Cocci are round, spirilla have spiral shapes, and bacilli are shaped like rods. All forms of bacteria multiply (reproduce) by division. As the cell is nourished, it grows larger. When it has grown as large as it can, it divides itself into two cells that are the same size. These are called daughter cells. This process of cell division is called mitosis. Mitosis can happen as often as once every 20 minutes.
When bacteria are growing and multiplying in favorable (warm, dark and moist) conditions, they are in an active cycle. When the conditions are unfavorable for bacteria, the cells die or become inactive. Some bacteria, including bacilli, can live through an inactive cycle by forming spherical spores. These spores, which move easily through the air, are much more resistant to heat, chemicals and sunlight, in this inactive state. The bacteria live as spores until their surrounding conditions improve. They change back to their original form and return to the active cycle. Although spore formation is not very common among bacteria, it is a factor you should consider when keeping the salon sanitary. Some spores can survive for a long time in extreme heat and cold.
Professionals with open or weeping sores should not come in direct contact with a client, until their sores have healed or are covered. Therefore, it is advisable to wear gloves whenever possible, so that your hands do not become injured when working with clients and chemicals.
Hand Washing Methods
The following section is an excerpt of the https://www.cdc.gov/features/handwashing/
Handwashing is one of the best ways to protect yourself, your family, and others from getting sick. Washing your hands with soap and water is simple and easy. More importantly, it’s one of the most effective ways to prevent the spread of germs. Clean hands can stop germs from spreading from one person to another and throughout an entire community—from your home and workplace to childcare facilities and hospitals.
What is the right way to wash your hands?
Follow the five steps below to wash your hands the right way every time.
- Wet your hands with clean, running water (warm or cold), turn off the tap, and apply soap.
- Lather your hands by rubbing them together with the soap. Be sure to lather the backs of your hands, between your fingers, and under your nails.
- Scrub your hands for at least 20 seconds. Need a timer? Hum the “Happy Birthday” song from beginning to end twice.
- Rinse your hands well under clean, running water.
- Dry your hands using a clean towel or air dry them.
Scrub your hands for at least 20 seconds.
If soap and water are not available, use an alcohol-based hand sanitizer that contains at least 60% alcohol.
When should you wash your hands?
You can help yourself and others stay healthy by washing your hands often, especially during these key times when germs are likely to get on your hands and can easily spread to you or others:
- Before, during, and after preparing food
- Before eating food
- Before and after caring for someone who is sick
- Before and after treating a cut or wound
- After using the toilet
- After changing diapers or cleaning up a child who has used the toilet
- After blowing your nose, coughing, or sneezing
- After touching an animal, animal feed, or animal waste
- After touching garbage
Principles of Prevention; Infection Control
Now that you are familiar with the various forms of bacteria, there are three main terms that you will want to learn and keep in mind as you clean your working area. These terms are Sanitation, Disinfection and Sterilization.
The process of sanitation destroys pathogenic bacteria (fungal and bacterial). The disinfection process kills pathogenic and nonpathogenic bacteria, but not bacterial spores (viral and bacterial). The process of sterilization is used to kill all bacteria (pathogenic, non-pathogenic and bacterial spores) on all implements (fungal, bacterial, viral, parasites and bloodborne pathogens).
Although, sterilization kills all bacteria and is the ideal way to clean, it is almost impossible to make and keep implements sterile. Even if an implement is sterilized, as soon as it hits the air in the salon, it is no longer sterile. Therefore, it is very important to keep everything in the salon sanitary. If pathogenic bacteria are found in the salon, the implements used there will be unsanitary, also called septic.
Public health or sanitation refers to the set of procedures used to stop the spread of communicable diseases and the development of other infections caused by pathogenic agents. Under rules and regulations issued by public health departments and state boards of professional regulations, salons are required to keep working areas, building, and their equipment and always implements in a sanitary condition.
Antiseptics halt or prevent the growth of pathogenic bacteria. They are often used to maintain the sanitary condition of implements that have been sterilized.
Disinfectants, bactericides, and germicides are the chemical agents that destroy pathogenic bacteria. Professionals should use these very carefully. These chemicals are very useful for sterilizing implements. These chemicals require caution when used due to being flammable and could cause chemical burns.
Antiseptics, on the other hand, are not disinfectants. They do not destroy all bacteria. They can be used on the skin. In addition, most disinfectants can be diluted with water and used as antiseptics.
Whenever professionals use any of these cleaners, they should also remember that sanitizing methods do not kill bacteria instantly. Complete destruction of bacteria requires time depending on the labeling instructions. Always follow all safety precautions, directions for dilution, and other procedures recommended by the manufacturer. Chemicals should be poured carefully to avoid waste and damage.
Implements are ordinarily sanitized with quaternary ammonium compounds. Equipment such as shampoo bowls and fixtures in the dispensary and bathroom are sanitized with Lysol or diluted forms of ammonium.
Use of quaternary ammonium compounds (quats), varies from state to state. To be effective, a quats solution must be as strong as 1-part quats concentrate to 1,000 parts water. For safety, it should not be mixed any stronger. A solution of 2/3 ounce of quats in 1 gallon of water (20 milliliters quats in 3.8 liters of water) yields a 1:1,000-sanitizing solution. Mixed to this strength, a formula will kill all the following: Herpes simplex virus, Influenza A, Adenovirus type 3, Staph Bacteria, Fungus and Vegetable bacteria
Always follow the manufacturer’s directions. Wear gloves when removing implements from a wet sanitizer containing this solution.
Chemical agents are used in two kinds of sanitizing containers: wet sanitizers and dry sanitizers. The wet sanitizer disinfects the implements, and the dry sanitizer keeps them sanitized until they are used.
The wet sanitizer uses water and a chemical agent. The wet sanitizer must be nonmetal, large, and deep enough so that implements, and other items can be covered by the chemical solution. It also must have a cover to prevent contamination.
The dry sanitizer is a clean airtight cabinet or drawer. The unit can be made of wood, metal, or plastic. It must be large enough to hold implements after they have been removed from the wet sanitizer. Implements may be stored in a dry sanitizer if the door is always kept closed. Ultraviolet rays are the sanitation method involving physical agents and most often used in salons. These rays have germicidal effects; meaning they kill most bacteria and some viruses. One type of ultraviolet sanitizer has a small heat-blower that dries the implements while the rays sterilize them. Although they are expensive, ultraviolet sanitizers are used in salons.
Measures Used to Sanitize and Disinfect the Service Area
Sanitary measures must be used for the care of: (1) all implements used in performing a service, (2) personal habits and (3) to maintain the area in which the service is performed. Somethings to be considered in sanitation includes air purification, plumbing, furnishings, floors, and lighting.
Electronic air precipitators (air purifier or air cleaner) remove particles and circulate the air. These appliances usually are rated by their CFM (cubic feet per minute). Most electronic air precipitators filter the air by drawing air through cellulose and/or charcoal filters. The cleaned air is then blown back into the salon. Although these appliances are small, they do a good job of removing viruses, bacteria, and chemicals from the air inside the building.
Air conditioners cool, dehumidify (remove moisture), and cleanse pollutants from air coming into the building from the outside. Forced-air furnaces heat to some extent and cleanse the air.
All salons must be well ventilated, and salon furnishings and floors must have surfaces that can be sanitized regularly. The level of humidity in a room is related to the degree of heat needed for comfort. Adjusting the humidity level with a humidifier or dehumidifier, with the advice of an appliance dealer, can make the salon more comfortable. Humidifiers add moisture to the air, preventing excessive drying of the skin and reducing static electricity. Salons with good air-sanitation programs generally lose fewer workdays to illnesses caused by bacteria.
All salons must have continuous hot and cold water. Most public health departments also require a vacuum breaker for each shampoo bowl. This fixture prevents the reverse flow of contaminated water and keeps it from backing up into the fresh-water supply system.
Safety Measures for Use and Storage of Chemicals, Fire Safety, and First Aid in Salons
An important part of being a licensed beauty professional is recognizing the importance of safety. Knowing how to work safely and maintain a safe environment is an important part of the licensing requirements. Making the salon a safe place to receive services is everybody’s job, not just the job of the owner/manager. Everyone that works in the salon plays a part in keeping the salon sanitary.
Many products that are used in the salon could be dangerous to you or the client. Whenever possible, flammable products should be stored in metal cabinets and should be kept away from sources of extreme heat.
As a salon professional, you probably would not think that soiled towels are very hazardous, but they are-if they are not stored in a closed container.
Whenever professionals use sanitizing chemicals, they should take the following precautions:
- Read instructions before use.
- Mix according to the manufacturer’s directions.
- Wear gloves or use forceps when removing implements from a wet sanitizer.
- Keep fumes away from your eyes and nose and do not inhale any fumes, which can irritate the delicate tissues of the eyes and nose.
- Store chemicals in a safe place, out of the reach of children.
- When storing a product in a generic container be sure to label the container indicating its contents and strength.
Storage of Chemicals
Light, temperature, moisture, and air are the four most important things to consider when storing products.
Light – particularly ultraviolet light from the sun changes the chemical makeup of products. As additional protection, these products should be stored in a closed cabinet, rather than displayed in the front window of the salon.
Temperature – heat in any form also changes the chemical makeup of products. All professional products should be stored away from any form of heat, such as a cool and dry area of the salon.
Moisture – an extremely damp area may cause a product to become moldy. Store supplies in a dry area.
Air – will alter the active chemical agents in products. Keeping all products tightly sealed and in their original box or package will allow the chemicals to remain in their active state longer than if left unsealed.
Refer to the Florida Department of Business and Professional Regulations for up to date laws and regulations regarding sanitation within the salon.
Skin Diseases and Disorders
Hair is a slender threadlike appendage, or extension of the skin. It is made of hard, keratinized protein. Keratin is a protein found in the human skin. It is located in the epidermis (the outer layer of skin, which is made of soft keratin that protects the body). There are two kinds of keratin: soft and hard. Hard keratin forms the chemical basis of hair. Hair is made up of approximately 51 percent carbon, 6 percent hydrogen, 17 percent nitrogen 5 percent sulfur, and 2 percent oxygen. Hair nourished (fed) by protein that comes from food. The protein is carried to the hair by blood vessels.
A molecule is the smallest possible unit of any compound. It is made up of two or more atoms chemically combined. These atoms are joined or connected, by bonds. The building blocks of protein molecules are organic substances called amino acids.
Hair growth occurs beneath the scalp where amino acids form proteins. As it happens chemical reactions that produce peptide linkages take place. These peptide linkages are held together by cross-bonds. The hair has three types of cross-bonds: disulfide, hydrogen, and salt. When these cross-bonds are joined together in the hair they are called poly (many) peptide bonds. During hair-care services the polypeptide bonds are broken and re-formed by both physical and chemical actions. Hydrogen bonds make up ⅓ of the overall hair strength and are broken physically when the hair is stretched while it is still wet and wound around a roller. The bonds re-form as the hair dries in a curled position or shape. The salt bond is also a weak, physical, crosslink side bond between adjacent polypeptide chains. Salt bonds depend on pH, so they are easily broken by strong alkaline, or acidic solutions. Even though they are weak bonds, there are so many of them that they account for ⅓ of the hair’s overall strength. The disulfide bond is a strong, chemical, side bond that is very different of the physical side bonds of hydrogen and salt. The disulfide bond joins the sulfur atoms of two neighboring cysteine amino acids to create one cystine. Disulfide bonds are not broken by water, they are broken by permanent waves and chemical hair relaxers that alter the shape of the hair.
Since services are performed directly on the skin of the clients, it is important that they be done safely. To do that, the salon professional must have a thorough understanding of the histology (microscopic study of the tissue), including its structure and functions.
The salon professional should be familiar with some of the more common disorders and diseases of the skin. Your job is knowing when you cannot safely give a service to a client and must refer the client to a physician or dermatologist.
The skin is the largest and one of the most efficient organs of the human body. It grows, reacts to sensation, and constantly renews itself. The skin is divided into three layers:
- Corium (dermis)
- Subcutaneous tissue
The epidermis is the thinnest and outermost layer of the skin. It is about as thick as this page. Although you can only see these skin cells through a microscope, they are very active.
The corium or dermis is the underlying or inner layer of the skin. It is 25 times thicker than the epidermis and rests upon a thick pad of fatty or adipose subcutaneous tissue. This subcutaneous tissue below the corium is the third layer of the skin. It serves as a shock absorber and heat insulator for the body.
The proteins collagen and elastin are produced in the dermis or corium layer of the skin. These proteins provide skin with elasticity and prevents the wrinkling of the skin associated with aging and overexposure to harmful ultraviolet light from the sun or tanning beds.
In general, the skin serves as a barrier between the organs inside the body and the rest of the world. Specifically, the skin has six important functions:
Protection. The skin protects the body from physical or chemical injury and from bacteria. This outermost layer is resistant to wide variations in temperature, minor injuries, chemical active substances, and many forms of bacteria.
Sensation. By stimulating different sensory nerve endings, the skin responds to heat, cold, touch, pressure, and pain. This is achieved through a network of nerve endings that are located all over the surface of the skin.
Heat regulation. A healthy body’s internal temperature at 98.6 F (37 C). Blood flows in the vessels to keep the body warm, while the sweat glands serve as the cooling system.
Excretion. Perspiration secreted by the Sudoriferous (sweat glands), takes toxins out of the blood to help excrete.
Secretion. Sebum is secreted by the sebaceous glands. This oil lubricates the skin, keeping it soft and pliable. Oil also keeps hair soft.
Absorption. Some ingredients can be absorbed by the outer layers of the skin, but very few ingredients can penetrate the epidermis. Small amounts of fatty materials, such as those used in many advanced skin care formulations, may be absorbed between the cells and through the hair follicles and sebaceous glands openings.
Glands are groups of cells that take certain substances from the blood, make new substances out of them, and then release the new substances. Skin glands fall into two general categories-sebaceous and sudoriferous.
The sebaceous glands are present all over the body except in the palms of the hands and the soles of the feet. They secrete an oily fluid called sebum through a duct to a follicle that may contain a hair. The sebum is material from dead keratinized cells that have broken down. When a sebaceous gland secretes sebum through its duct, the entire gland falls apart and is pushed out through the duct. Sebaceous glands are much larger and more numerous on the scalp and face than elsewhere on the body.
The sudoriferous glands are more abundant in four locations, the palms of the hands, the soles of the feet, the underarms and the forehead. It consists of a coiled base gland and a tube like sweat duct that terminates at the skin’s surface forming the sweat pore.
Skin Diseases and Disorders:
Psoriasis is a skin disease that can be chronic or acute. It is characterized by inflamed (red) patches and overlapping white or silver scales. It is not contagious, though the crust will bleed if disturbed, making this treatment not recommended if present. It is caused by over proliferation of skin cells that replicate to fast, it can also be found in patches on scalp, elbows, knees, chest and lower back.
Herpes simplex is a viral infection (from a virus) characterized by inflammation of the skin and mucous membranes, especially those of the face and lips. Such inflammations are called cold sores. Exactly how this condition develops is not known, but it usually clears up in 6 to 10 days. It is a contagious condition, so body wrapping applications are not recommended, when present.
Scabies is another animal parasitic condition. It is an infestation of itch mites, which burrow into the scalp or skin and cause irritation, leading to scratching. Scabies is very contagious. Refuse service to a person with this condition and refer him or her to a doctor.
Tinea, a skin infection caused by a fungus (vegetable parasite), is very contagious. This condition, which is commonly called ringworm, appears as circular inflamed areas of little blisters. A person with tinea cannot be served and should be advised to see a doctor.
Seborrheic Dermatitis – is a skin condition caused by inflammation of the sebaceous glands, and is often characterized by redness, dry or oily scaling, crusting, and/or itchiness. It is often seen in the eyebrows, beard, at the hairline, the middle of the forehead and along the sides of the nose.
Asteatosis is caused by hypo-activity (under activity) of the sebaceous glands. The glands produce too little sebum which results in dry, scaly skin and/or hair that lacks luster.
A steatoma, or a subcutaneous cyst) is a large protruding pocket like lesion of filled with sebum.
Acne is an eruptive skin disease caused by chronic inflammation (irritation) of the sebaceous glands. It usually appears on the face, chest, and back. It is from retained secretions and a bacterium known as propionibacterium.
Comedones, also called blackheads, occur when the skin is not cleansed properly and regularly. Sebum hardens around a speck of dirt or dust, clogging a pore and creating a slightly raised area.
Milia, are keratin filled cysts that are trapped in a sebaceous duct under the epidermis.
Miliaria rubra is an acute irritation below the top layer of skin. It is an inflammation of the sudoriferous (sweat) glands. Commonly called prickly heat, this disorder usually occurs during hot weather. Best known as a heat rash, and it is not communicable.
Salon revenue is generated primarily from four sources: clientele, retail sales, booth rental and tips. All businesses, large or small, need to keep good records. When an owner or independent contractor fails in these important areas, it limits the success rate of the business.
Clientele revenue includes the salon owner’s revenue plus that of the employees. The salaries/wages of the employees are normally based on productivity, and productivity records are generally used to determine compensation. Services rendered directly affects the salon’s and individual stylist’s clientele revenue. Compensation is based on commission, salary, or a commission/salary combination.
Retail revenue is based on Cost of Goods Sold (COGS). Most products are marked up 100%, according to IRS calculations. An accountant can take COGS and double the expense, which can then be used as a gauge for determining retail revenue. A second method for reconstructing retail revenue is based on commission. A common practice in the salon industry is to pay a 10 – 15 percent commission to the seller/salon professional.
If the salon has all booth rentals, the salon owner is a landlord. An auditor will verify the available space and the amount that is occupied.
Of the four main revenue-generating sources, tips can be the red flag on tax returns. For that reason, the following information on tip reporting should be carefully noted. Workers in the salon industry supplement their base compensation with tip income, and tips have been reported as high as 22 percent of gross sales. Salon owners may state that they do not receive tips and thus have a “0” percent tip rate. All tips you receive are income and are subject to federal income tax. You must include all tips you receive directly from customers, tips from charge customers that are paid to you by your employer, and your share of any tips you receive under a tip-splitting or tip-pooling arrangement, in gross income. Additionally, the value of non-cash tips, such as tickets, passes, or other items of value are also income, and subject to tax. Reporting your tip income correctly is not difficult. You must do three things:
- Keep a daily tip record.
- Report tips to your employer.
- Report all your tips on your income tax return.
Everyone in business ─ Shop owners, independent contractors and booth renters should keep accurate client and bookkeeping records. Good records will help you do the following:
- Monitor the progress of your business
Good records are imperative to monitor the progress of your business. Records can show whether your business is improving or what changes you need to make. Good records can increase the likelihood of the overall success of the business.
- Prepare your financial statements
Maintaining good records help prepare accurate financial statements. These include income (profit and loss) statements and balance sheets. These statements can help you in dealing with your bank or creditors.
- Identify the source your of receipts
You will receive money from clients for your services and products. Your records can identify the source of your receipts. You need this information to separate business from non-business receipts and taxable from nontaxable income.
- Keep track of deductible expenses
Don’t forget expenses when you prepare your tax return, these should be recorded when they occur.
- Prepare your tax returns
Records must support the income, expenses, and credits you report. Generally, these are the same records you use to monitor your business and prepare your financial statements.
- Support items reported on tax returns
Business records must always be available for inspection by the IRS. If the IRS examines any of your tax returns, you may be asked to explain the items reported. A complete set of records will speed up the examination. You can choose any record-keeping system suited to your business that clearly shows your income. The business you are in affects the type of records you need to keep for federal tax purposes. You should set up your record-keeping system using an accounting method that clearly shows your income for your tax year. Your record-keeping system should include a summary of your business transactions. This summary is ordinarily made in your books (for example, accounting journals and ledgers). Your books must show your gross income, as well as your deductions and credits. For most small businesses, the business checkbook (discussed later) is the main source for entries in the business books.
- Supporting Documents
Purchases, sales, payroll, and other transactions you have in your business will generate supporting documents. Supporting documents include sales slips, paid bills, invoices, receipts, and deposit slips. These documents contain the information you need to record in your books.
It is important to keep these documents; they support the entries in your books and on your tax return. Keep them in an orderly fashion and in a safe place. For instance, organize them by year and type of income or expense. Documents for purchases help you determine the value of your inventory at the end of the year.
Expenses are the costs you incur to carry on your business. Your supporting documents should show the amount paid and that the amount was for a business expense. A small cash fund allows you to make small payments without having to write checks for small amounts. Each time you make a payment from this fund; you should make out a cash slip and attach it to your receipt (proof of payment) and reconcile each time.
Assets are the property, such as equipment and furniture that you own and use in your business. You must keep records to verify certain information about your business assets. You need records to figure the annual depreciation and the gain or loss when you sell the assets.
- Business checkbook
One of the first things you should do when you start a business is open a business checking account. You should keep your business account separate from your personal checking account. The business checkbook is your basic source of information for recording your business expenses. You should deposit all daily receipts in your business checking account. You should check your account for errors by reconciling it. Consider using a checkbook that allows enough space to identify the source of deposits as business income, personal funds, or loans. You should also note on the deposit slip the source of the deposit and keep copies of all slips. Use the business account for business purposes only. Indicate the source of deposits and the type of expense in the checkbook. Careful record keeping can be a major contribution to your success as a salon professional, whether you own the shop or elect to work as an independent contractor. If you start in the beginning keeping good records, you substantially reduce the odds of an IRS audit, and substantially increase the odds of establishing a sound, and prosperous business.
FUNDAMENTAL PRACTICES OF A SUCCESSFUL SALON OWNER
- Keep it together – Being organized is about being realistic, like making time in a busy calendar for the things that need to be completed. Successful salon owners need to concentrate on their activities and enjoy minimum interruptions. So, for specific tasks they commit to certain timeframes. They are disciplined and stick to their plan.
- Make time for their team – Any good leader knows that their team is the heart of the business. If the team is not happy, clients are going to be affected. Good leaders make time to support the needs of their team and assist them in making corrections.
- Systemize and automate to save time – We are in an age where there are so many exciting and useful tools available to us, and successful business owners use this to their advantage. They harness the power of the internet and cloud-based software to make their work easier. Tech systems save both time and money by automating many of the things that take up valuable time.
- Inspire their employees – Successful salon owners know that it makes sense to invest time and energy into inspiring their employees. They know that it is their responsibility to protect the future of their team, clients and themselves.
- Work for tomorrow – Profit does not equal your take home value. It is very important to reinvest some of your profit back into your business.
THREE FUNDAMENTALS FOR BUILDING A SUCCESSFUL SALON
Fundamental 1 – The Dual Experience
Experience 1: The Employee Experience
This consists of but is not limited to, compensation plans, incentives, training, staff space design, salon policies and goal setting. This process not only duplicates yourself but also your skills and vision for your salon.
Experience 2: The Guest Experience
Without clients, there is no business. Don’t let salon policies weigh you down, remember that generous customer service can be what sets your business apart from others. Examples of companies that represent this king of customer service are Ritz Carlton®, Nordstrom®, Chick-Fil-A®, or Amazon®. They are shining examples of exemplary customer service delivery, and salon professionals would grow exponentially by following their lead. “Your team is responsible for delivering this quality of experience after extensive training on your branded systems. As the business owner, you’re responsible for creating and training those systems. You, as the “macro-visionary,” should be homed in on the duplication process of these systems in order to be sure that your brand and style come across clearly with every guest interaction. Your team’s mastery of this experience will drive new traffic as well as retain existing clientele with a deep appreciation for your brand vision.”
Fundamental 2 – The Expense Outflow
Educate yourself and employees on the importance of core financial knowledge, financial strategies and reports to be used by a business owner. Make yourself aware of tax deductions that can be applied to your expenses. You will be unable to expand if you run out of available income. Building a designated budget for all the salon expenses can require a professional’s outlook. This allows you to focus on the salons procedures and practices to deliver great service.
Leave the accounting to the accountant. Compiling and hiring the right team is a requirement to be a great business owner. Finding your teams key players will take your salon to a mastery level and is your main priority. Be sure to assign and delegate these tasks to trained professionals such as:
- An accountant (large financial tasks)
- A bookkeeper (daily accounting)
- A business coach (educates you on the workings of a stellar accounting workflow)
- A front desk training system (correct management of your daily revenue collection into your accounting systems)
Fundamental 3 – Your Cash/Revenue In-flow
How much you make is key to your company’s growth. You cannot ignore the importance of how your salon generates revenue. As a salon owner/professional, you must first analyze your pricing to manage your sustainability and profitability. Your pricing should be based off a balance between your expenses, precisely dealing with how much service or product revenue you’re capable of generating every hour, every day, every week, every month, and every year. This is one standard way of getting into the backside of loss/profitability.
All salon owner would agree that how much you charge will determine your revenue.
The third fundamental, exhibits your revenue generation, this is the most influential on how sustainable your company will be. Keep your pricing up to date in the Four Point Pricing System:
- The service and pricing brochure
- The website price list
- The front desk and computer pricing templates
- The staff training procedures on service lists and proper product fees
CONCEPTS FOR SALON GROWTH
How to formulate your pricing structure:
- Determine your total annual service and product revenue
- Calculate your total sum of expenses
- Add up how many days your business is open per year
- Project a reasonable profit margin
- Divide this profit margin amount by the amount of days you’ll be open per year
- Increase your prices per day/per hour to incorporate new profit layers
This provides a metrics that supports you in determining your hourly, daily, monthly, quarterly, and annual goals. This system will enable you to calculate your pricing to strategically generate more revenue. “I encourage you to refocus on these three fundamentals within your business, starting with Fundamental 3. Determine whether or not you need to raise your prices, which will affect your cash in-flow.”
Planning your Salon
- Make a Business Plan – What is your business? How will it be successful? How will you troubleshoot problems?
- Figure out Funding – cost to get started; traditional loan or investor.
- Find a Mentor – someone with experience in the salon industry that can answer questions.
- Put in place an Accounting and Inventory Program – to track revenue, expenses and inventory.
- Location – know the area; good traffic; high visibility.
Growing Your Salon
- Hired staff based off personality first and then skill level – you want your clients to enjoy coming into the salon.
- Continue to measure marketing efforts – new client acquisition should be full time and not overlooked.
- Reevaluate your business plan – this should always be a work in progress and make changes when needed.
- Check ways to save – review inventory and make changes and cuts; review monthly expenses (internet and product reduction).
- Ask for referrals – there is no greater compliment than a client that sends in a friend.
- Introduce a solid loyalty program – conscience on pre-scheduling; example: purchase 5 haircuts get the sixth one at half price.
10 Habits of Successful Salon Owners:
- They build relationships with their clients – discuss their desired look, what’s going on in their life, products and procedures suited to their needs.
- Listen to their Clients – offer quality services and create a personal environment where your client trusts your expertise.
- Stay focused on your client – Pay undivided attention, which allows for attention to detail and provides them with excellent customer service.
- Catalog pictures of your work – before and after; specialty and design.
- Seek reviews regularly – have clients fill out questionnaires, send text to review service appointment, provide links for clients to write reviews or testimonials.
- Stay Consistent – in follow-ups and marketing strategies as well as keeping notes on client conversations.
- Time Management – Return email, phone calls, and text messages between guests or during chemical processes, and always being responsive to your clients.
- Respect Schedule – Extremely important to be on time will help to keep your clients schedule in tack.
- Stock Inventory and Motivate Product Sales – Educate clients on how to use products in order to sell and keep products fully stocked.
- *The Key Habit* Pre-scheduling your clients next appointment – Encourage clients to pre-schedule to ensure they receive the time and date they prefer, and keep clients returning on a set maintenance schedule.
Keeping Up with Current Trends
There are specific techniques and new products that are being developed all the time. Like almost any other aspect of fashion and style, trends are always changing in cosmetology. Earning a certificate in the most recent trendy techniques by completing advanced coursework is the only way to add these to your repertoire.
Your clients don’t want an outdated style. Staying on top of the trends is a must in order to keep your clients happy, and to ensure you can continue to grow your salon. If your competition is offering the newest and hottest styles but you have not completed the training, your clients may go elsewhere to get the style they want. This means that advanced courses aren’t just important for your personal growth, they are also paramount for the growth of your business.
Even though, as a licensed cosmetologist, you probably practice many of the concepts you learned in cosmetology school every day, most salons do develop specific specialties over time. If your salon only does the occasional eyebrow wax or if you don’t perm long hair regularly, continuing education courses give you a chance to brush up on these skills.
Enhancing your skills may also allow you to add new clients or offer current clients additional services. The beauty of continuing education is that you can immediately put the skills and techniques into use.
Continuing education for cosmetologist provides you an opportunity to sharpen your skills. If there is a particular area in which you are weak, you can take a class to get better. Even though you may practice your cosmetology skills every day, you may also have fallen into bad habits or forgotten certain best practices. Attending advanced courses help you to hone your skills so that you are offering your clients the best services possible.
Expanding Your Career
Cosmetology continuing education also provides you an opportunity to expand your career. Perhaps after cosmetology school, you became a hairstylist but want to offer manicures or pedicures and need to learn more advanced techniques, as well as brush up on the foundations you learned in school. You may also want to add some esthetic services, such as facials or body wraps, so you need to take some specialty skin care courses to do so. You can also use your advanced education to become a cosmetology instructor or a specialist in a particular salon. In most states that require continuing education for cosmetology, part of the requirement is two-three hours of training in health and safety and sanitization practices. It is important to be current on the best practices, as well as any new laws or regulations so that you keep yourself and your clients safe from communicable diseases and harmful chemicals. There may be other important industry changes about which you should be aware, such as new technology or laws, that you will learn in your courses. Taking continuing education courses provide numerous benefits. They help you remain sharp and at the top of your game while also helping you to expand your services and increase your income potential. Whether or not it is required by your state, you should take come courses for your own advantage.
Review Florida Cosmetology Laws and Statutes here: http://www.myfloridalicense.com/DBPR/cosmetology/statutes-and-rules/